A root canal treatment is used to repair and save a tooth that is badly decayed or becomes infected. Earlier RCTs were done in multiple appointments, but due to the advances in the field of Endodontics (Apex locators & Endomotors) it is possible to complete the same procedure in a single visit. However, if a case is not suitable to be undertaken in a single appointment, then a multiple-appointment schedule can be planned.
WHAT IS ROOT CANAL
"Root canal" is the term used to describe the natural cavity within the center of the tooth. The pulp or pulp chamber is the soft area within the root canal. The tooth's nerve lies within the root canal.
During a root canal procedure, the nerve and pulp are removed and the inside of the tooth is cleaned and sealed. Without treatment, the tissue surrounding the tooth will become infected and abscesses may form.
Deep dental decay
Repeated dental procedures on a tooth
A crack or chip in the tooth
Trauma to the face.
SIGNS & SYMPTOMS:
Severe toothache pain upon chewing or application of pressure
Prolonged sensitivity/pain to heat or cold temperatures (after the hot or cold has been removed)
Discoloration (a darkening) of the tooth
Swelling and tenderness in the nearby gums
A persistent or recurring pimple on the gums
Local anaesthesia is given which numbs the tooth. An opening is made through the crown of the tooth to the pulp chamber. Special files are used to clean the infection and unhealthy pulp out of the canals. Then the canals are shaped for the filling material. Irrigation is used to help clean the canals and remove debris. The canals are filled with a permanent material. Typically this is done with a material known as gutta-percha. This helps to keep the canals free of infection or contamination. A temporary filling material is placed on top of the gutta-percha to seal the opening. The filling remains until the tooth receives a permanent filling or a crown. A crown, sometimes called a cap, looks like a natural tooth. It is placed over the top of the tooth. In some cases, a post is placed into the root next to the gutta-percha. This gives the crown more support
Saving your natural teeth is the very best option, if possible. Your natural teeth allow you to eat a wide variety of foods necessary to maintain proper nutrition. The root canal procedure is the treatment of choice. The only alternative to a root canal procedure is having the tooth extracted and replaced with a bridge, implant, or removable partial denture to restore chewing function and prevent adjacent teeth from shifting. These alternatives not only are more expensive than a root canal procedure but require more treatment time and additional procedures to adjacent teeth and supporting tissues.
A dental crown is a tooth-shaped "cap" that is placed over a tooth to cover the tooth to restore its shape and size, strength, and improve its appearance.
A bridge is a fixed dental restoration used to replace a missing tooth by joining an artificial tooth permanently to adjacent teeth or dental implants.
Your dentist may recommend a crown to:
Replace a large filling when there isn't enough tooth remaining
Protect a weak tooth from fracturing
Restore a fractured tooth
Attach a bridge
Cover a dental implant
Cover a discolored or poorly shaped tooth
Cover a tooth that has had root canal treatment
Can be of ceramic, metal or acrylic.
A bridge may be recommended if you're missing one or more teeth. Gaps left by missing teeth eventually cause the remaining teeth to rotate or shift into the empty spaces, resulting in a bad bite. The imbalance caused by missing teeth can also lead to gum disease and temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disorders. Bridges are commonly used to replace one or more missing teeth. They span the space where the teeth are missing. Bridges are cemented to the natural teeth or implants surrounding the empty space. These teeth, called abutments, serve as anchors for the bridge. A replacement tooth, called a pontic, is attached to the crowns that cover the abutments.
Pediatric dentistry focuses on early oral hygiene and preventive care for infants and children, leading to fewer dental problems and corrective measures in adulthood. Oral Hygiene Instructions, Diet Counseling, Dental Sealants and Fluoride Application together can prevent almost all tooth decay.
Child Care Dentistry involves:
ORAL HYGIENE INSTRUCTIONS & DIET COUNSELING
Oral hygiene instructions and diet counseling
Sealants are thin, plastic coatings painted on the chewing surfaces of the back teeth. Getting sealants put on is simple and painless. Sealants are painted on as a liquid and quickly harden to form a shield over the tooth. Children should get sealants on their primary and permanent molars as soon as the teeth come in - before decay attacks the teeth
Fluoride makes teeth more resistant to decay, repairs tiny areas of decay before they become big cavities and makes bacteria in the mouth less able to cause decay. Fluoride treatment together with Dental Sealants can prevent almost all tooth decay.
Root canal treatment is necessary when the pulp (soft tissue inside your teeth containing blood vessels, nerves and connective tissue) becomes inflamed or diseased. During root canal treatment, your dentist removes the diseased pulp, the insides of the tooth are cleaned and sealed.
Stainless steel crowns are one of the most durable restorative (filling) material used in pediatric dentistry. They are biocompatible and do not corrode in the moist atmosphere of the oral cavity even after many years. They are used when tooth decay involves more than two surfaces of a tooth (where the normal filling materials do not stay) and in teeth that are root canal treated. The crowned tooth is as good as a natural tooth and usually falls of normally.
Cosmetic dentistry is generally used to refer to any dental work that improves the appearance (though not necessarily the function) of a person's teeth, gums and/or bite. If you have stained, broken or uneven teeth, cosmetic dentistry can help. Cosmetic dentistry is different from orthodontic treatment, which can straighten your teeth with braces or other devices.
Bleaching is a common and popular chemical process used to whiten teeth. Some people get their teeth bleached to make stains disappear, while other just want a whiter shade. Discoloration occurs in the enamel and can be caused by medication, coffee, tea and cigarettes. Discoloration also can be hereditary or simply due to getting older. Bleaching can be performed by your dentist in the office or, under dental supervision, at home.
Bonding is tooth-colored material used to fill in gaps or change the color of teeth. Requiring a single office visit, bonding lasts several years. Bonding is more susceptible to staining or chipping than other forms of restoration. When teeth are chipped or slightly decayed, bonded composite resins may be the material of choice. Bonding also is used as a tooth-colored filling for small cavities. Additionally, it can be used to close spaces between teeth or cover the entire outside surface of a tooth to change its color and shape.
Veneers are thin pieces of porcelain or plastic placed over the front teeth to change the color or shape of your teeth. Veneers are used on teeth with uneven surfaces or are chipped, discolored, oddly shaped, unevenly spaced or crooked. Veneers have a longer life expectancy and color stability than bonding. Veneers can be placed on teeth with minimal tooth preparation. They look and feel completely natural. A beautiful result is achieved in just a few days time, and can last for many years. The texture and finish of porcelain veneers make them highly resistant to external staining. Due to their durability, looks and comfort, veneers have become one of the most popular cosmetic dental treatments available today.
CROWNS & BRIDGES
Crowns, also known as caps, cover a tooth to restore it to its normal shape and appearance. Crowns have the longest life expectancy of all cosmetic restorations.
A bridge is a fixed dental restoration used to replace a missing tooth by joining an artificial tooth permanently to adjacent teeth or dental implants.
CONTOURING AND RESHAPING
Tooth reshaping and contouring, is a procedure to correct crooked teeth, chipped or irregularly shaped teeth or even overlapping teeth in a single session. Tooth reshaping and contouring, is commonly used to alter the length, shape or position of your teeth. Contouring teeth may also help correct small problems with bite. It is common for bonding to be combined with tooth reshaping. This procedure is ideal for candidates with normal, healthy teeth but who want subtle changes to their smile. Your dentist will take X-rays to evaluate the size and location of the pulp of each tooth to ensure that there's enough bone between the teeth to support them.
A sparkling shine can be added to your smile with a tooth jewel. It’s easy, painless and does not require any tooth cutting. A brilliant piece of crystal available in different sizes and shades is bonded on the front surfaces of upper teeth. The advantage is that these can be fixed and removed with equal ease, as the procedure is non-invasive.
A dental extraction (also referred to as exodontia) is the removal of a tooth from the mouth. Extractions are performed for a wide variety of reasons, including tooth decay that has destroyed enough tooth structure to render the tooth non-restorable. There are additional reasons for tooth extraction:
Severe tooth decay or infection (acute or chronic alveolar abscess. It is the most common reason for extraction of (non-third molar) teeth with up to two thirds of extractions.
Supernumerary teeth which are blocking other teeth from coming in.
Severe gum disease which may affect the supporting tissues and bone structures of teeth.
In preparation for orthodontic treatment (braces)
Teeth in the fracture line
Teeth which cannot be restored endodontically
Supenumerary, supplementary or malformed teeth
Prosthetics; teeth detrimental to the fit or appearance of dentures
An impacted tooth is one that fails to erupt into the dental arch within the specific time. Because impacted teeth do not erupt, they are retained throughout the individual's lifetime unlessextracted or exposed surgically. Teeth may become impacted because of adjacent teeth, dense overlying bone, excessive soft tissue or a genetic abnormality. Most often, the cause of impaction is inadequate arch length and space in which to erupt. The third molars are frequently impacted because they are the last teeth to erupt in the oral cavity. Mandibular third molars are more commonly impacted than their maxillary counterparts. As a general rule, all impacted teeth must be removed unless and otherwise contraindicated.
Periodontics is that specialty of dentistry which encompasses the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of diseases of the supporting and surrounding tissues of the teeth or their substitutes and the maintenance of the health, function and esthetics of these structures and tissues.
Gum Graft Surgery
Exposed tooth roots are the result of gum recession. Gum graft surgery repairs the defect and help to prevent additional recession and bone loss. This can be done for one tooth or several teeth to even your gum line and reduce sensitivity.
Regenerative Procedures (Bone Augmentation)
Procedures that regenerate lost bone and tissue supporting your teeth can reverse some of the damage caused by periodontal disease. In this procedure, your periodontist folds back the gum tissue and removes the disease-causing bacteria. Membranes (filters), bone grafts or tissue-stimulating proteins can be used to encourage your body's natural ability to regenerate bone and tissue.
Eliminating existing bacteria and regenerating bone and tissue helps to reduce pocket depth and repair damage caused by the progression of periodontal disease. With a combination of daily oral hygiene and professional maintenance care, you'll increase the chances of keeping your natural teeth – and decrease the chances of other health problems associated with periodontal disease
Dental Crown Lengthening Procedure
You may have asked about procedures to improve a "gummy" smile because your teeth appear short. The teeth may actually be the proper lengths, but they're covered with too much gum tissue. To correct this a dental crown lengthening procedure is performed where excess gum and bone tissue is reshaped to expose more of the natural tooth. This can be done to one tooth, to even your gum line, or to several teeth to expose a natural, broad smile.
Periodontal Pocket Reduction Procedure
Your bone and gum tissue should fit snugly around your teeth like a turtleneck around your neck. When you have periodontal disease, this supporting tissue and bone is destroyed, forming "pockets" around the teeth. Over time, these pockets become deeper, providing a larger space for bacteria to live. As bacteria develop around the teeth, they can accumulate and advance under the gum tissue. These deep pockets collect even more bacteria, resulting in further bone and tissue loss. Eventually, if too much bone is lost, the teeth will need to be extracted.
During this procedure, your periodontist folds back the gum tissue and removes the disease-causing bacteria before securing the tissue into place. In some cases, irregular surfaces of the damaged bone are smoothed to limit areas where disease-causing bacteria can hide. This allows the gum tissue to better reattach to healthy bone. Reducing pocket depth and eliminating existing bacteria are important to prevent damage caused by the progression of periodontal disease and to help you maintain a healthy smile.
A dental implant is like an artificial tooth root that is placed into your jaw to hold a replacement tooth or bridge. Dental implants are an ideal option for people in good general and oral health who have lost a tooth or teeth due to periodontal disease, an injury, or some other reason. Under proper conditions and diligent patient maintenance, implants can last a lifetime. Implant treatment normally has two stages. First, the implant is placed in the jaw. Then, when the gum has healed, replacement teeth are attached to the implant. In some situations it is possible for temporary teeth to be attached to an implant at the time of fitting
Dentures, also known as false teeth, are prosthetic devices constructed to replace missing teeth; they are supported by the surrounding soft and hard tissues of the oral cavity. Conventional dentures are removable. However, there are many different denture designs, some which rely on bonding or clasping onto teeth or dental implants.
Types of Dentures:
REMOVABLE PARTIAL DENTURES
Removable partial dentures are for patients who are missing some of their teeth on a particular arch. Fixed partial dentures, also known as "crown and bridge" dentures, are made from crowns that are fitted on the remaining teeth. They act as abutments and pontics and are made from materials resembling the missing teeth. Fixed bridges are more expensive than removable appliances but are more stable. Another option in this category is the Flexible partial, which is widely considered to be the most comfortable.
Complete dentures are worn by patients who are missing all of the teeth in a single arch (i.e., the maxillary (upper) or mandibular (lower) arch). Complete dentures can be either "conventional" or "immediate." Made after the teeth have been removed and the gum tissue has begun to heal, a conventional denture is ready for placement in the mouth about eight to 12 weeks after the teeth have been removed. Unlike conventional dentures, immediate dentures are made in advance and can be positioned as soon as the teeth are removed. As a result, the wearer does not have to be without teeth during the healing period. However, bones and gums shrink over time, especially during the healing period following tooth removal. Therefore a disadvantage of immediate dentures compared with conventional dentures is that they require more adjustments to fit properly during the healing process and generally should only be considered a temporary solution until conventional dentures can be made.